Francis Marion University, Florence, SC
Compton Effect and X-ray Experiments
Dates: May 29, 2023 to May 31, 2023
Number of setups available: 1
Maximum number of participants: 2
During this Immersion, participants will perform X-Ray experiments using a Leybold X-Ray Apparatus. Experiments will include X-Ray Diffraction, the Compton Effect, the Duane-Hunt Relation and the Determination of Planck’s Constant, Moseley’s Law and the Determination of the Rydberg Constant, the Attenuation of X-Rays as a Function of Absorber Material and Thickness, Wavelength Dependency of the Coefficient of Attenuation, Relationship between the Coefficient of Attenuation and Atomic Number, Energy Spectrum of an X-Ray Tube as a Function of High Voltage and Emission Current, Edge Absorption: Filtering X-Rays, Recording the Energy Spectrum of a Molybdenum Anode, and X-Ray Fluorescence for the Non-Destructive Analysis of Chemical Composition.
The apparatus consists of a Leybold 554 801 X-Ray Apparatus that is equipped with a goniometer, Molybdenum X-Ray tube, end window counter, x-ray energy detector, MCA box, and Pocket Cassy sensor. Optional accessories include a set of absorber foils, set of absorbers, K-line fluorescence target set, L-line fluorescence target set, alloys target set, Compton X-Ray accessory II, and an absorption accessory for X-Rays. Approximately 30 experiments can be done with this apparatus. These can be found at https://www.ld-didactic.de/literatur/hb/p_index_e.html. At this site, click on “P6 Atomic and Nuclear Physics”. Then click on “P6.3 X-Ray Physics”. Finally, click on any of the six subcategories to see multiple experiments for each heading.
The total cost for this apparatus depends on the individual experiments that a participant wishes to perform. The Leybold 554801 X-Ray Apparatus Complete sells for $26,835 at Klinger Educational and can be found at https://klingereducational.com/products/554801-x-ray-apparatus-mo-complete.
Overview of Immersion
Day 1 Prelab
Energy Spectrum of an X-Ray Tube as a Function of High Voltage
Energy Spectrum of an X-Ray Tube as a Function of Emission Current
Recording the Energy Spectrum of a Molybdenum Anode
X-Ray Diffraction of Monocrystals – NaCl
X-Ray Diffraction of Monocrystals - LiF
Duane-Hunt Relation and the Determination of Planck’s Constant
Day 2 Prelab
Compton Effect Measurement the Energy of Scattered Photons vs Scattering Angle
Using the Compton Effect to Measure the Mass of the Electron
Wavelength Dependency of the Coefficient of Attenuation
Relationship between the Coefficient of Attenuation and Atomic Number
Day 3 Prelab
Moseley’s Law and the Determination of the Rydberg Constant
Edge Absorption: Filtering X-Rays
X-Ray Fluorescence for the Non-Destructive Analysis of Chemical Composition
Skills, Safety, and Things to Bring
Participants will learn how to setup and operate all parts of the apparatus, will perform a wide variety of X-Ray experiments that can be readily inserted into the advanced undergraduate physics curriculum, and will learn about the underlying physics principles for each experiment. All of the equipment that is necessary to perform these experiments will be provided. Appropriate safety equipment is included with the X-Ray apparatus, so that it is essentially “idiot-proof” for students to use. Participants should bring a notebook and calculator to the Immersion.
Host and Mentor:
Seth Smith earned his undergraduate degree from Francis Marion University and his Masters and PhD degrees in physics from Louisiana State University. His graduate training was in experimental laser physics, involving dye laser development and supersonic free jet expansions of free radicals. He has been a physics professor at Francis Marion University since 1989. In recent years, his focus has been on learning advanced undergraduate physics experiments and incorporating these into the physics curriculum. He established the Advanced Laboratory in Physics at FMU and has incorporated numerous experiments into this lab, the Modern Physics Lab, and the Research in Physics course. He has benefited immensely from participation in 11 ALPHA Immersions and 3 Beyond the First Year of Physics Conferences, and these have been some of the most valuable set of experiences in his career. He is a winner of the FMU Distinguished Professor Award and holds the Pee Dee Electric Cooperative Chair in Physics at FMU.
Dr. Seth Smith Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.